Posted by John Meade on November 5, 2009
As I was reading through II Maccabees again, I was struck by the references to God as creator and the Jewish mother’s exact confession of God as Creator in chapter 7. Regardless of whether chapter 7 was originally in Jason’s history (2:19-23) or an interpolation of the epitomator, the view she confesses is still from the second century BC at latest (see NETS, 503, for details).
Texts Pertaining to Creation
7:23 τοιγαροῦν ὁ τοῦ κόσμου κτίστης ὁ πλάσας ἀνθρώπου γένεσιν καὶ πάντων ἐξευρὼν γένεσιν καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα καὶ τὴν ζωὴν ὑμῖν πάλιν ἀποδίδωσιν μετ᾽ ἐλέους, ὡς νῦν ὑπερορᾶτε ἑαυτοὺς διὰ τοὺς αὐτοῦ νόμους.
Therefore indeed the Creator of the world, the one who formed the beginning of humanity and invented the beginning of all things will give both spirit and life to you again with mercy, as/because now you watch yourselves on account his laws.
7:28 ἀξιῶ σε, τέκνον, ἀναβλέψαντα εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς πάντα ἰδόντα γνῶναι ὅτι οὐκ ἐξ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεός, καὶ τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος οὕτω γίνεται.
I ask that you, child, after looking into heaven and earth and seeing all things in them, know that God did not make them from existing matter/things, and the race of men came about in the same way.
Some observations that stand out: 1) God invented the beginning of all things, which has to include all matter. 2) This view of creation is the ground for believing that God will raise the dead and supply them again with spirit and life. Thus the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo functions as the ground for the life in the new creation. 3) 7:28 expresses negatively what was already expressed positively in 7:23: God did not make them (the heavens and the earth) from existing things.
Although these texts are late compared to the rest of the OT, these texts depend on the doctrine of creation contained therein. The Jews were certainly reading the text that we have, and concluding from it that God created all things and he did not create them from existing matter. Their interpretation is not inspired, but it certainly enjoys a long tradition, and it is also the conclusion of the Author to the Hebrews in 11:3: Πίστει νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας ῥήματι θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκ φαινομένων τὸ βλεπόμενον γεγονέναι and the Gospel of John 1:3: πάντα δι᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. ὃ γέγονεν and other place in the NT.
Posted in Creation, Greek, New Testament, Septuagint, Textual Studies, Theology, Uncategorized | Tagged: Creation, Greek, II Maccabees, Old Testament, Septuagint | 19 Comments »
Posted by John Meade on October 13, 2009
At LXX Studies we will more than likely never be the first to break a story to the public, but hopefully we will be able to offer sound reflection on some of the more newsworthy items from the perspective of the Ancient Versions.
This past week, there was some hype due to an announcement that Ellen Van Wolde has made an argument that concludes something to the tune of “the traditional view that God is creator is untenable now.” As I understand it, a major part of Van Wolde’s argument concerns the translation of the Hebrew word ברא in Genesis 1:1. Of course the traditional translation of this word is “to create,” but Van Wolde has suggested that the word in this context should be translated “to separate,” so that the text is not teaching the original creation of the heavens and the earth, but only the separation of the heavens from the earth (see Chris for an apt critique of Van Wolde’s analysis of the Hebrew usage).
What Van Wolde means by the “traditional view” is not clear, but one may safely assume that she has in mind the traditional exegesis of Genesis 1:1 which supports the traditional Jewish and Christian view of creation that God created the heavens and the earth ex nihilo. I simply want to list the evidence of the Ancient Versions in order to present the traditional exegesis of this verse.
LXX: ᾿Εν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. The text can be translated: In the beginning God created/made the heavens and the earth (see LSJ s.v. αρχη for anarthrous examples with prepositions, where the sense is still clearly definite probably because the lexical item naturally assumes only one beginning). The LXX, then, uses a verb which does not mean “to separate,” but means “to make” or “to create” ( for the latter meaning see s.v. ποιεω A.2 LSJ). For a thorough listing of translation equivalents for bara’ in the LXX and for what equivalents one would expect to see if the translators wanted to communicate the sense “to separate” see here. This translation comes from the 3rd century BC (c. 280 BC) and some might wonder if the translators intended to convey that God only formed the heavens and the earth from existing matter by their use of ποιεω. Although this is possible, only about 120 years later, we see clearly that the Jews are praying to the LORD God as ο παντων κτιστης (“the creator of all”) among other appellations in 2 Maccabees 1:24. The Jews clearly have an understanding that God created all things in this period of their history and this theology must come from texts such as Genesis 1:1.
Aquila: ἐν κεφαλαιω εκτισεν θεος συν τον ουρανον και συν την γην. Aquila employs the very specific verb κτιζω “to create” in order to render the Hebrew text. Note that Aquila is not using the συν preposition in the normal sense “with” so that someone might be tempted to translate the text: God created with the heavens and with the earth or something like this. Rather, Aquila uses συν characteristically to translate the Hebrew marker of the direct object את.
Symmachus: Not extant
Theodotion: Not extant
Vulgate: In principio creavit Deus caelum et terram. Jerome uses creo to communicate the idea of creation, not separation.
Peshitta: ܒܪܫܝܬ ܒܪܐ ܐܠܗܐ܂ ܝܬ ܫܡܝܐ ܘܝܬ ܐܪܥܐ܂ P uses a cognate (bra’) to translate the Hebrew text in this verse. According to the CAL in the G stem this verb may mean “to create” or “to get well.” The former is clearly the meaning in this context given that the verb is transitive in this context.
Targum: בֲקַדמִין בְרָא יוי יָת שְמַיָא וְיָת אַרעָא׃ The Aramaic Targum uses the same cognate (bra’) as P, which has the same range of meaning in this dialect according to the CAL.
The Ancient Versions speak with one clear voice that God did indeed create the heavens and the earth, not simply the “stuff” in the heavens and the earth, and they certainly did not understand the text to mean God separated the heavens and the earth.
Therefore any argument to the contrary will have to be established firmly on the basis of the analysis of the Hebrew text of Genesis and the Hebrew Bible as a whole, which is Van Wolde’s project apparently. However, see John Hobbins’ initial critique of Van Wolde’s analysis of the Hebrew Bible here.
Posted in Aquila, Aramaic, Creation, Genesis, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Masoretic Text, Peshitta, Septuagint, Syriac, Targum, Textual Studies, Theology, Vulgate | Tagged: Aquila, Aramaic, Creation, Genesis, Greek, Hebrew, Masoretic Text, Peshitta, Septuagint, Syriac, Targum, Vulgate | 3 Comments »